The Protohistoric period in the Indian Sub-continent is one of the most interesting and formative periods of our past. This is the period where we went from sedentism to civilisation. This is the period where we learnt how to domesticate animals and plants, to intensively exploit the land around us, to trade over long distances and to create surplus food. This surplus food was our wealth which bought things we could not make and this brought about craft specialisation which in turn led to state formation and the creation of Empire. The protohistoric period saw the rise of the Harappan state and its decline. It also saw the ability to make our first metal tools and to then move on from Copper to Iron. This was the period that led to the creation of the 2nd Urbanisation of the Ganga Valley and the beginnings of the Historical Era.